Dynamics of Qballs

Main focus:  Dynamical Evolution and Interactions of Nontopological Solitons or QBalls.

Talk presented at the Meeting on Topological Defects at Capri 7-12 September 2000.

See also plots showing 3D scattering of Q balls leading to formation of Q loops

Authors:   Minos Axenides, Stavros Komineas, Leandros Perivolaropoulos and Emmanuel Floratos.

We use numerical simulations and semi-analytical methods to  investigate the stability and the interactions of nontopological
stationary qball solutions
. In the context of a simple model we map the parameter sectors of  stability for a single qball and verify the result using numerical   simulations of time evolution. The system of two interacting qballs is also studied in one and two space dimensions.
We find that the system generically performs breather type oscillations   with frequency equal to the difference of the internal qball  frequencies. This result is shown to be consistent with the form of the qball interaction potential. Finally we perform simulations of qball scattering and show that the right angle scattering effect observed in topological soliton scattering in two dimensions, persists also in  the case of qballs where no topologically conserved quantities are present. For relativistic collision velocities the qball charge is  split into a forward and a right angle scattering component. As  the collision velocity increases, the forward component gets amplified at the expense of the right angle component.

Work available in print:  PS file of the paper with figuresSource TeX  File ,   Figures

Numerical Simulations of QBall Scattering (charge density evolution).

Identical Charge (intermediate rest frame initial velocity v=0.4)

like-charge00.gif (21161 bytes)  (Click on the figures to view the simulation.  Notice the Partial Right Angle Scattering)


Zero Initial Velocity (breather-type evolution)

breather00.gif (31416 bytes)

High Initial Velocity (v=0.8)  (forward scattering)

forward00.gif (18330 bytes)

Opposite Charge (intermediate rest frame initial velocity v=0.4)

opp-charge00.gif (21830 bytes)

Reviews on  Non-Topological Solitons and Q Balls:

By T.D. Lee (Columbia U.), Y. Pang (Brookhaven). CU-TP-506, (Received Nov 1991). 143pp.
Published in Phys.Rept.221:251-350,1992

By Sidney Coleman (Harvard U.). HUTP-85/A050, Jun 1985. 33pp.
Published in Nucl.Phys.B262:263,1985, Erratum-ibid.B269:744,1986


Visits: Hit Counter